the method has proved better than traditional cognitive therapy at reducing both symptoms of panic and hyperventilation, according to a new study. hyperventilation, a state of excessive breathing, results from deep or rapid breathing and is common in patients with panic disorders. the goal of these exercises is to reduce chronic and acute hyperventilation and associated physical symptoms. cart was proved an effective and powerful treatment that reduces the panic by means of normalizing respiratory physiology.” the study pitted cart against a conventional cognitive therapy treatment, or ct. traditional ct teaches patients techniques aimed at helping them change and reverse catastrophic thoughts in order to reduce fear and panic.
in the cart-ct study, 41 patients were assigned to complete either a cart or ct treatment program for panic disorder and agoraphobia, a fear of being trapped with no means of escape or help. by reversing hyperventilation, patients reported a new ability to reduce panic symptoms by means of changing their respiration. “cart, however, tells us a patient’s co2 is very low and is causing many of the symptoms feared, but it can also show how to change these symptoms through correct breathing. ongoing studies will test the efficacy of cart in patients with asthma and fear of blood. smu is a private university in dallas where nearly 11,000 students benefit from the national opportunities and international reach of smu’s seven degree-granting schools.
the reductions in panic symptom severity and panic-related cognitions and the improvements in perceived control were significant and comparable in both treatment groups. thus, the alteration of symptom appraisal is presumed to be the primary mediator. the aim in this study was to elucidate distinct and common mechanisms of change in two interventions for pd, ct and cart, and to determine their unique contribution to reductions in panic symptoms. forty-one patients with a principal diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia (pda), according to the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed. all interviews were conducted by clinicians trained and certified in the respective instruments. ct is based on the theory that maladaptive thoughts contribute to symptom development and maintenance of panic (clark, 1986). therapist adherence for ct was rated against an adherence checklist that was based on the mastery of your anxiety and panic (map-3) treatment protocol (craske et al., 2000) and was created to assess adherence in the study by barlow et al. this conceptual similarity, coupled with the high correlation of these measures in this and previous studies (r = .63), led us to combine the asi and bsq into a single composite. as originally recommended, the pdss was administered in a time-sensitive interval (i.e., 4 weeks apart) to allow for a stable estimation of panic frequency and severity. the first analyses compared the slope of change in the measures over time across the two treatment groups to verify treatment efficacy and to investigate treatment differences.
accordingly, separate analyses were conducted for each of the two dependent variables in the each of the models. below, we present the results for each mediator in turn, discussing its significance as a mediator and its specificity to treatment condition. thus, the effect of symptom appraisal on pdss appears to be specific to ct and bidirectional. although symptom appraisal and pco2 were both moderated mediators of changes in panic severity, the paths that were moderated were different for these two mediators. the specificity of pco2 as a mediator in cart was further strengthened by the temporal precedence analysis (cross lags) indicating that changes in pco2 were unidirectionally related to changes in symptom appraisal and perceived control. furthermore, analyses indicated that symptom appraisal appeared to be a mediator of pdss in the cart condition except when perceived control was included as an additional mediator. perceived control appeared to be a powerful modality-nonspecific mediator of changes in pdss, even when controlling for the effects of pco2 and/or symptom appraisal. furthermore, the successful reductions in panic symptom severity achieved in our study seem remarkable, given the brevity of our interventions, and speak for the operating mediators that were pursued with tightly controlled homework assignments. 2ct is often combined with other techniques (e.g., behavioral experiments), and this complicates the direct testing of the pathways of its proposed mediator. none of the differences between treatment groups were significant.
cart: breathing exercises twice a day cart breathing a proven biological therapy treatment helps patients address terror associated with panic. certain breathing exercises help to regulate the body. cart breathing or capnometry-assisted respiratory training. cart is a brief, tightly controlled 4-week training that uses immediate feedback of end-tidal pco2 to teach patients how to raise subnormal levels of pco2,, related symptoms, related symptoms, cart breathing app, breathing exercises for teens, breathing grounding exercise.
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