a few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. it is worth noting that the only statistical summary for effect on positive emotion in the meta-analysis by galante et al. we would also separate out changes to the immediate positive emotions induced by the on-going practice of lkm and the daily positive emotions from the lkm interventions or long-term practice of lkm because they are different in nature. the article of cohn and fredrickson (2010) reported the longitudinal data of fredrickson et al. as shown in table 1, among the 10 rct studies that evaluated the effect of the lkm intervention on daily positive emotions, eight studies involved a comparison between lkm and the wait list control group. (2014) reported that lkm showed a significantly larger increase in positive emotions than concentration meditations (see supplementary material for the effect sizes of these comparisons). as shown in table 3, six rct studies evaluated the effect of the on-going practice of lkm and their comparisons or tasks varied. the majority of the reviewed studies (17 out of 25) investigated the effect of lkm interventions on daily positive emotions. in addition, all of the studies that measured follow-up results (see tables 1 and 2) reported that positive emotions gained at post intervention were maintained. (2014), and other studies reported that baseline positive emotions influenced the effect of lkm intervention (kok et al., 2013). in addition, all of the reviewed studies involved lkm for both self and others to some extent and did not compare differences between targets. the present meta-analysis explored the relationship between the length of interventions and the effect on daily positive emotions, but no significant relationship was detected. all of them reported significant increases in positive emotions, and excluding these studies did not change the results of the meta-analysis. as discussed above, more studies are required to evaluate the effect of lkm interventions and on-going lkm. third, what is the role of positive emotions in the effect of lkm interventions on other outcomes?
the present meta-analytic review confirmed that lkm interventions could enhance positive emotions in daily life and that the on-going practice of lkm could provide short-term positive emotions. in search of durable positive psychology interventions: predictors and consequences of long-term positive behavior change. the role of positive emotions in positive psychology: the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. effect of kindness-based meditation on health and well-being: a systematic review and meta-analysis. the neural correlates of social connection. a pilot study of loving-kindness meditation for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. loving-kindness meditation and the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. the construct and measurement of peace of mind. the neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model. a pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. the broaden and build process: positive affect, ratio of positive to negative affect and general self-efficacy. perceived benefits and doubts of participants in a weekly meditation study. buddhist-derived loving-kindness and compassion meditation for the treatment of psychopathology: a systematic review. doi: 10.3724/sp.j.1042.2013.01466 citation: zeng x, chiu cpk, wang r, oei tps and leung fyk (2015) the effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review. the use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
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