there are many temptations to organize our life around the experience of earlier trauma. it can also help people recognize and accept negative emotions—especially when it is done in combination with mindfulness practices that keep people grounded in experiencing the present. meditation acts on areas of the brain that modulate the autonomic nervous system, which governs such functions as digestion and blood pressure—functions heavily affected by chronic stress. and people often believe they’re not capable of meditating, but the truth is that there is no wrong way to meditate—just trying can bring about positive changes. most forms of meditation are meant to decrease distractibility and promote focus on and enjoyment of the present moment.
meditation can and should be individualized to benefit the meditator. nature invites us to meditate on the wonder of this precious life. focused attention and open awareness practices are two of the most common. getting better control of your attention is the foundation of changing your brain for the better. getting better control of your attention is the foundation of changing your brain for the better. there are many temptations to organize our life around the experience of earlier trauma.
in this paper, we will mainly focus on the multiplicity of meditation techniques. to date, we have found no thorough overview of meditation techniques doing justice to the complexity and diversity of meditation practices found in various meditative traditions and schools. moreover, the framework in which certain meditation techniques are practiced seems to be of profound importance (wachholtz and pargament, 2005; hunt et al., 2018; trives, 2018). they also touch on the effort, stability, and attitude or motivation behind the practice, or include questions on the axiological or traditional framework in which a practice is conducted. this may be due to the historical development of meditation and meditation research in the west (see above) but cannot account for the immense variety of meditation practices found across different spiritual traditions. on the other hand, very broad definitions could be very inclusive of diverse meditation techniques, but might broaden the scope too far by including practices generally not considered to be meditation techniques. we decided to approach the above-mentioned difficulties from a completely different perspective involving experienced meditators from diverse traditions in the process of gathering, selecting and grouping meditation techniques. the dimensions and clusters should form the basis of a new, empirically derived classification system for meditation techniques. participants saw the upper half of a matrix listing all 20 meditation techniques horizontally and vertically. 58.8% of the participants were female, and 93.0% were currently living in germany. dimension 2 has sitting in silence, concentrating on a contradiction or paradox, lying meditation, and observing thoughts or emotions at one end of the spectrum, while meditation with movement, walking and observing senses, and manipulating the breath are at the other end. manipulating the breath, walking and observing senses, and meditation with movement could be grouped into a broader cluster of “meditation with movement”. however, and importantly, some of the techniques have slightly shifted their position and/or affinity to the afore-mentioned clusters (printed in bold type). based on our results, we propose a two-dimensional system of classifying meditation according to (1) the amount of body orientation in the technique, and (2) the level of activation in the technique. meditation places the focus of attention onto those ascending and descending inner processes, making them more salient in consciousness. overall, it seems that similarity or dissimilarity of meditation techniques seems to be implicitly attributed to differences in the two above-mentioned embodied dimensions, i.e., level of activation and amount of body orientation. in conclusion, we would suggest that it might eventually be helpful to discard the rather unspecific category of fa meditation and replace it by the more specific categories presented in our empirically derived mds solution. we are well aware that our choice of practices might have been limited to the regional availability of meditation teachers and traditions. future studies could compare the effects of bare meditation techniques to a combined intervention of meditation practice and ethical or philosophical teachings.
a broad range of diverse meditation techniques was effectively depicted in the novel classification system presented in this paper. the effect of focused attention and open monitoring meditation on attention network function in healthy volunteers. issues and perspectives in meditation research: in search for a definition. defining a complex intervention: the development of demarcation criteria for “meditation”. meditate to create: the impact of focused-attention and open-monitoring training on convergent and divergent thinking. reconstructing and deconstructing the self: cognitive mechanisms in meditation practice. proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. mindfulness starts with the body: somatosensory attention and top-down modulation of cortical alpha rhythms in mindfulness meditation. distinct neural activity associated with focused-attention meditation and loving-kindness meditation. meditation and the neuroscience of consciousness. neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation. meditation practices for health: state of the research. experiencing meditation: evidence for differential effects of three contemplative mental practices in micro-phenomenological interviews. “opening up meditation for science: the development of a meditation classification system,” in meditation – neuroscientific approaches and philosophical implications. in the oxford handbook of meditation, eds m. farias, and d. brazier, & m. lalljee, (oxford: oxford university press). disentangling the neural mechanisms involved in hinduism- and buddhism-related meditations. meditation and attention: a comparison of the effects of concentrative and mindfulness meditation on sustained attention. the meeting of meditative disciplines and western psychology: a mutually enriching dialogue. embodiment of cognition and emotion.
meditation is a mental exercise that trains attention and awareness. its purpose is often to curb reactivity to one’s negative thoughts and feelings, which, psychologists have found that mindfulness meditation changes our brain and biology in positive ways, improving mental and physical health. research has shown that meditation has a range of psychological benefits. learn more about what meditation is, how it works,, .
n. profound and extended contemplation or reflection in order to achieve focused attention or an otherwise altered state of consciousness and to gain insight into oneself and the world. luckily, there’s good evidence for those as well, with studies reporting that meditation helps relieve our subjective levels of anxiety and depression, and improve attention, concentration, and overall psychological well-being. imagine your breath going in as you inhale, and your breath going out as you exhale. try to focus on your breath. you will notice that your attention strays, some thoughts or feelings or sounds drag you away from focusing on your breathing. don’t worry when you notice your mind drifting all over the place. meditation and mindfulness belong to two of the currently most popular and hyped research topics in psychology, psychiatry, medicine, in meditation, a person learns to focus attention. some forms of meditation instruct the student to become mindful of thoughts, feelings, and sensations and to scientists have mostly focused on the benefits of meditation for the brain and the body, but research suggests that meditation may also have impacts on, . the emotional and physical benefits of meditation can include:gaining a new perspective on stressful situations.building skills to manage your stress.increasing self-awareness.focusing on the present.reducing negative emotions.increasing imagination and creativity.increasing patience and tolerance.
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