within the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the investigation of mindfulness as a psychological construct and as a form of clinical intervention. as the idea and practice of mindfulness has been introduced into western psychology and medicine, it is not surprising that differences emerge with regard to how mindfulness is conceptualized within buddhist and western perspectives. this is not to say that external sensory objects do not ultimately form part of one’s internal experience; rather, in buddhist teachings, mindfulness more fundamentally has to do with observing one’s perception of and reactions toward sensory objects than focusing on features of the sensory objects themselves. for example, the maas (brown & ryan, 2003) assesses mindfulness as the general tendency to be attentive to and aware of experiences in daily life, and has a single factor structure of open/ receptive awareness and attention. in addition to correlations with self-report measures, research has examined behavioral and neurobiological correlates of mindfulness meditation. there is also burgeoning evidence from neurobiological and laboratory behavioral research that indicates the potential roles of trait mindfulness and mindfulness meditation practices in reducing reactivity to emotional stimuli and enhancing psychological well-being. developed as an approach to prevent relapse in remitted depression, mbct combines mindfulness training and elements of cognitive therapy (ct) with the goal of targeting vulnerability processes that have been implicated in the maintenance of depressive episodes. mindfulness skills are taught in the context of the skills-training group as a way of helping patients increase self acceptance, and as an exposure strategy aiming to reduce avoidance of difficult emotion and fear responses (linehan, 1993b).
dbt and act, on the other hand, incorporate a range of informal mindfulness exercises in their treatment approach. evidence is mixed with regard to the relative effects of mindfulness and distraction. the findings of these studies suggest that training in two key elements of mindfulness practice (focused awareness and acceptance) may reduce emotional reactivity to negative stimuli and increase willingness to remain in contact with them. the studies reviewed so far indicate that measures of mindful awareness are related to various indices of psychological health and that mindfulness interventions have a positive impact on psychological health. in addition, brief mindfulness training has been shown to reduce memory for negative stimuli (alberts & thewissen, in press), a mechanism that may partly underlie the beneficial effects of mindfulness-based interventions on emotion functioning. although a number of self-report inventories have been developed to assess mindfulness, they vary greatly in content and factor structure, reflecting a lack of agreement on the meaning and nature of mindfulness (brown, ryan, & creswell, 2007). little is known about their cost effectiveness, nor about the amount and type(s) of training that is required for an individual to be a competent provider of mindfulness training (allen, blashki, & gullone, 2006). as research on mindfulness is in its early stages of development, further collaborative research is needed to develop a more solid understanding concerning the nature of mindfulness, how mindfulness can best be measured, fostered, and cultivated, and the mechanisms and specificity of effects of mindfulness-oriented interventions.
mindfulness is a state of active, open attention to the present. the goal of mindfulness is to cultivate perspective on one’s consciousness and identity that can bring greater peace mentally and relationally. mindfulness can be cultivated within or outside of formal meditation and woven into any activity, such as taking a walk or being engaged in conversation. to cultivate a state of mindfulness, you can begin by sitting down and taking deep breaths.
mindfulness is frequently used in meditation and certain kinds of therapy. to a lesser extent, they can alleviate stress and improve quality of life. becoming aware of the behavior and what is derived from it can help alter the reward and replace it with a healthier behavior. psychologists turn to religious studies scholars in their investigation and treatment of adverse meditation experiences. psychologists turn to religious studies scholars in their investigation and treatment of adverse meditation experiences.
researchers theorize that mindfulness meditation promotes metacognitive awareness, decreases rumination via disengagement from perseverative cognitive it combines meditation with the practice of mindfulness, which can be defined as a mental state that involves being fully focused on “the now” these findings suggest that mindfulness meditation practice may enhance psychological well-being by increasing mindfulness and attenuating, .
by lowering the stress response, mindfulness may have downstream effects throughout the body. psychological scientists have found that mindfulness influences two different stress pathways in the brain, changing brain structures and activity in regions associated with attention and emotion regulation. mindfulness is frequently used in meditation and certain kinds of therapy. its benefits include lowering stress levels, reducing harmful ruminating, and mindfulness meditation is unique in that it is not directed toward getting us to be different from how we already are. instead, it helps us “mindfulness is the psychological process of bringing one’s attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment,, .
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