a short version of sart has been investigated as a psychological support salon activity for the elderly, mothers raising children, special needs students, and children adapting to school. sart emphasizes the ability for the user to iteratively recognize points of tension in the body and perform relaxation-inducing movement tasks “self-actively” in this manner on an as-needed basis, as a matter of practical stress management, self-development, and psychoeducation (ohno, 2006, 2015; ki and ohno, 2008; konno, 2016). the procedure and principles of sart were extracted from these articles for explanation, and served as a basis for the comparison to relaxation techniques established in world literature. in ohno (2007), each group of movement tasks is defined as a “system” that corresponds to the section of the body that each set of movements is meant to target. the extent to which sart was responsible for their reports of daily life changes and the duration of these changes over time is unclear from the lack of a follow-up study. semi-structured interviews during each session were conducted to investigate the process of change in attitudes about the self and the body over time, with sart used as a clinical tool and case reports of client feedback as an evaluation. clinical applications of sart have been numerous in japan, but one case illustration of a client presenting with alcohol dependency and depressive symptoms was described as an exemplar in the literature (ohno, 2015). mothers qualitatively reported that sart was a helpful tool for them to understand that their stress, irritation, and body states can affect the quality of their interactions with their children, and that by adjusting their mood through relaxation tasks, they can stay cognizant of them in everyday childrearing situations. sart was associated with reduced total mood disturbance and tension-anxiety, and a qualitative analysis of interview data revealed numerous categories related to changes in body awareness after experiencing the approach. utsunomiya and ohno (2012) investigated the 5-min shortened version of sart as a tool for stress management for elementary school students. this program identified areas in need with bottom-up coordination of local stakeholders and door-to-door recruitment at temporary housing complexes to provide a mental health promotion service for the communities. dohsa-hou directly targets postural stability and a heightened sensitivity to the role of body movement in everyday life (konno, 1999). breathwork in body psychotherapy incorporates attention to the breath as a source of guidance for relaxation from the therapist (caldwell and victoria, 2011). sart shares some of the same goals for psychoeducation and self-development as the “somatic education” inherent to the feldenkrais method. in this manner, sart allows for a narrative, one-on-one client focus to personalize the psychotherapeutic experience by navigating and negotiating set points of a person’s body tension and discussing changes in bodily states. it is possible that sart facilitates aspects of affect labeling vis-à-vis its emphasis on body state labeling in the pre- and post-assessment. sart is a tool and program of movement tasks that utilizes stress management and process-scaffolding psychoeducation to empower users to regulate tension in the body, improve mood, and attenuate sensations to the here-and-now. the authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. the common and distinct neural bases of affect labeling and reappraisal in healthy adults. effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on body awareness in patients with chronic pain and comorbid depression.
mind-body medicine: a model of the comparative clinical impact of the acute stress and relaxation responses. mindfulness training promotes upward spirals of positive affect and cognition: multilevel and autoregressive latent trajectory modeling analyses. “application of dohsa-hou in japan and abroad 5.1,” in dohsa-hou camps and monthly meetings in japan. a study of the relaxation in dohsa-hou: therapeutic support focused in self-activeness. the case study of self-active relaxation therapy (sart) for people with physical, developmental and severely mental and physical disabilities. psychological effect of stress management by sart from the viewpoint of self-esteem and self-control. the effects of a feldenkrais® awareness through movement program on state anxiety. the lateral effects of dohsa-method relaxation on visual and auditory responses. case study of psychological rehabilitation of at-risk children and the formation of good mother-child relations using sart. the study of psychological support for handicapped persons by using self-active relaxation therapy: self-awareness of people with developmental disabilities. effect of stress management by sart for mothers of children with tendency of developmental disorders. research on psychological support for children in foster homes: an effect of sart. applications of relaxation to stress management i: principles of self-active relaxation therapy. a study of child care support with self-active relaxation therapy. the preparatory set: a novel approach to understanding stress, trauma, and the bodymind therapies. the examination of validity, reliability, and factor structure of self-esteem scale by rosenberg for elementary and junior high school students. study of psychological support for aged persons by use of self-active relaxation therapy. evidence for the effectiveness of alexander technique lessons in medical and health-related conditions: a systematic review. case study of sart for improvement of self-esteem in children with developmental disabilities. citation: kabir rs, haramaki y, ki h and ohno h (2018) self-active relaxation therapy (sart) and self-regulation: a comprehensive review and comparison of the japanese body movement approach.
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